Application 03

Environmental Science

Electrical Production and Home Lighting Analysis

a. Identify the primary producer (name of company) of electricity in your community.

b. Indicate the source of energy used to produce the electricity locally.  (Oil, coal, nuclear, biomass, etc...) If there is more than one source then indicate what percentage each contributes.  Energy Sources in MI OR Sources of Electrical Production in MI

c. What is the current cost of residential electricity per kWh.? (Found on your electric bill).  This will look something like \$0.08000 kWh.
Find the kilowatts used per day and the cost per day. Divide your cost by the number of kWh to determine the cost per kWh.

http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/txt/ptb0810.html -  Average Retail Prices of Electricity, 1960-2007 (Cents per Kilowatt-hour, Including Taxes)

d. Compare the cost of electricity to general inflation.  Obtain the cost of electricity per kWh in 1970.Use the "Inflation Calculator" and determine how the cost of electricity has changed. In your answer state the 1970 cost, current cost, how the cost of electricity has changed and your impression of this change.

http://www.westegg.com/inflation/ - The Inflation Calculator

or

http://inflationdata.com/inflation/Inflation_Rate/InflationCalculator.asp - InflationData.com - Inflation Calculator  - Scroll to the bottom of the page for the calculator.

2.  Home Lighting Analysis

When we think about conserving energy our thoughts focus on cutting back or doing with less or converting to some inferior product. The purpose of the home lighting analysis application is to investigate your electrical lighting usages and to develop a plan that will reduce electrical consumption and increase the amount of lighting. You will investigate four different levels/types of lighting usage and develop four (4) spreadsheets that reflect this usage.

Analysis Procedure:

Download the Home Lighting Excel Spreadsheet to your computer.  If using "Open Office" save to Desktop then open with "SCAL"  (Open Office). As you look at the chart you will see rooms listed on the left of the spreadsheet and possible light bulbs in each room. You will use this spreadsheet to construct four spreadsheets for your report. (Enter your data into the spredsheets then Copy and paste into your report OR use the Snipping tool to create a picture, that can be resized when pasterd in the report)

a. 100% Energy Usage - Weighting of 1 - Current Usage

1) Enter the cost of residential electricity per kWh

2) Enter the weighting factor of 1 in the spreadsheet.

3) Identify the rooms in your house and count the lightbulbs in each rooms.

4) Enter the wattage of each bulb into the spredsheet.

5) Enter the number of hours a day each bulb is lite.

6) Include this spreadsheet in your report labeled as "100% Energy Usage".

b. 75% Energy Usage - Weighting of .75  - Reducing Usage to Save Energy

1) Change the weighting to .75 and keep all other data the same.

2) Include this spreadsheet in your report as "75% Energy Usage  Reducing Usage to Save Energy"

c. 50% Energy Usage - Weighting of .5 - Further Reducing Usage to Save Energy

1) Change the weighting to .5 and keep all other data the same.

2) Included this spreadsheet in your report as "50% Energy Usage - Further Reducing Usage".

d. Using Alternate Technology - Weighting of 1

1) Change the weighting to 1.

2) Change the wattage of each bulb, in the spreadsheet, to the wattage of a compact flourscent bulb.

OR

If you have already converted your house to compact fluorescent change the wattage of each bulb to 75 watts.

This change will allow the dermination of the energy you are saving.

3. Summarize "What you did" and "What you found out".

Discussion of your energy usage based on the different levels/types of lighting usage. Will you use less or differrent?

Discuss what is ment by "End use Energy", "Total Energy".

Appendix

Reference (Do not include in your report):

For Your Information the following indicates the procedures used, in the spreadsheet.

1. To determine watts per day  multiply watts per day by the number of hours.

2. To determine watts per year multiply watts per day by 365 days.

3. To determine kilowatts per year divide watts per year by 1000.

4. To determine the yearly cost of each light multiply the cost per kilowatt by the number of kilowatt hours.

5. "End Use" energy refers to the energy being directly being used in some energy source. Such as lighting a light bulb (electricity to light) or gasoline (gasoline to motion) or food (food to motion, growth, or reproduction). It is usually expressed in British Thermal Units. You can determine this energy by converting the Kilowatts/year (used by your bulbs) to British Thermal Units, BTUs. This is done by multiplying the number of Kilowatts/year times 3430 BTUs per Kilowatt.

6. "Total Energy" refers to the all the energy used to provide the energy source. This would the "End Use" energy plus all the energy needed to obtain, process, and transport the energy source. This would include all the energy needed to light the lights. Our best estimates indicate that this entire process is approximately 28% efficient. To obtain "total energy" in BTUs divide the "end use" BTUs by 28% or .28.

### II  Energy Conversions

 Common   Energy   Units Common Energy Units calories B T U's joules 1 gallon of gasoline 35,000,000 140,000 147,700,000 1 cubic foot of natural gas 250,000 1,000 1,055,000 1 kilowatt- hour 857,500 3,430 3,618,650 1 calorie 1 .004 4.2 1 Calorie (food ) 1000 4 4200 1 B T U 251.2 1 1,055 Definitions: 1 BTU is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water, one Fahrenheit degree. 1 calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one milliliter of water, one centigrade degree. 1 Calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one liter of water, one centigrade degree.  (Food Calorie) 1 joule is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one milliliter of water,  .24 centigrade degrees. Note: 1  gallon of water = 8 pounds 1  food calorie = 1000 calories, for the purpose of this research all references to the food calorie.

## III  Light Bulb Packaging

Incandescent Light Bulb Packaging                                           Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs

Note:  By looking at the packaging or researching on line one can find the light output, in lumens, of various types of light bulbs. By comparing wattage and lumens you will observe that a 60, 75, or 100 watt incandescent light bulb can be replaced with a compact fluorescent bulbs (usually 28 watt or 13 watt) and have an increase in the amount of light.