Application Project 04
Environmental Science
The Earth's Crust and Solid Waste


1. The Earth's Crust - For your state (a map of Michigan is available in this seminar)

Remember to cite your sources for each question!

Answer all questions using your own words!  Do not provide a link as an answer. 

The answers to the following questions should be detailed.  Be sure to include the original questions, the numbering/lettering system, along with your answers.  The links provided are a courtesy.  It is up to the student to find the answers, either at the provided links, or from other sources.  If a link is broken, then you will need to do the research.  

a.   Minerals in your state. 

1) Define rocks and provide one example of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks in your state.

2) Define minerals and provide an example. (answer in PowerPoint " Rock Cycle in Michigan ") 

3) Identify 10 minerals found in Michigan, where they are extracted, and common usage. (Copy chart and paste into your report)




            Common Usage










































b. Do local, state or federal laws require restoration of the land after mining is completed in your state? Identify the laws, indicate whether it is federal, state, or local law and how stringently are they enforced.

c. List the different types of natural hazards in your state and describe what is being done to reduce the risk from those hazards. Natural Hazards Web Site  Michigan Natural Hazards Analysis

d.   Analyzing your "location/position" on the earth.

1) Determine and record the latitude of your community. You can easily do this by Googling "what is the latitude of mycommunity, MI. Remember the latitude represents the "distance" from the equator and thus an indicator of our climate. (Record your latitude) This site can help you:  

2) Follow "your" latitude around the world using the "Outline Map of the World" observing the availability of fresh water, salt water and farming lands. Make a statement summarizing your observations.

3) Find the same, numberical, latitude southern hemisphere. Follow that latitude around the world observing the availability of fresh water, salt water and farming lands. Make a statement summarizing your observations.

4) Compare your observations of the availability of land and water and the development of cities (population) in the northern and southern hemispheres.

5) Discuss the implications of your observations for growth in populations and food production worldwide.


      RQ  You May Use The following Question to Replace one of the Above Questions. (a-e including subparts)

              Name your state's gemstone, and state rock. Which category does it fall under: Sedimentary,    
              Metamorphic, or Igneous?    (Answer found in PowerPoint.)


     Something Rare -  Learn more about Michigan's gemstone.  
         While watching the presentation Click on the PowerPoint slide to advance.    


2. Solid Waste Analysis

a. Procedure to collect data.

1) List the name of each piece of solid waste for three days that you are "disposing of" or "no longer going to use" or "throwing out" or "passing on to someone else" in the chart. (Copy chart and paste into your report)

2) Categorize this solid waste as recycled, reused, burned, do without, by placing an X in the appropriate box.


My Solid Waste for Three Days


  Name of Solid Waste

The Waste Could Be:

Recycled  Reused  Burned Do Without


































































Total Items  





  Percent (must add up to 100)






b. Procedure to analyze your solid.

1) Calculate the total number of items of each category. 

2) Calculate the percentage of each category. (Add up all the totals to get a "Grand Total".
Divide each of the totals by the "Grand Total". Multiply by 100 - to get percent)

3) How do your percentages compare with the percentages provided by the EPA?

According to the U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA), 55% Municipal Solid Waste produced is dumped in landfills, 30% is recycled or composted, and 15% is burned in incinerators. Paper makes up about 38% of the trash buried in the U.S. landfills, followed by yard wastes (12%), food waste (11%) and plastics (10%).


c. Solid waste and your community.

Contact your local landfill or your city's Department of Public Works (DPW) for the information.
Please note some agencies are very private or restrictive concerning information about waste disposal and may not be very forthcoming. In that case please include a narrative of your discussions with them.  Note: For each answer provide your source of information.


1) Identify your city and indicate the company that manages your solid waste disposal? (who picks up the solid waste at your home)

2) What happens to the solid waste disposed in your community?

a) How much solid waste is produced by your city?

b) What is done with your solid waste? Is it placed in landfills, incinerated, composted, recycled?

3) Does your community have a recycling program?

a) Is the recycling program voluntary or mandatory?

b) Does the recycling program have: curbside collection or Drop-off Centers?

4) Hazardous wastes and your community.

     Go to:  WASTE  Enter your zip code.  Scroll down to the desired section.

a) List no more than 10 facilities produce hazardous wastes in your community.

b) What happens to these wastes?

c) Are there any active or abandoned hazardous waste dumps in your community?

5) Household Hazardous Wastes - Contact the Health Department for your county (or go to their website) to find out how residents are to dispose of these wastes.

a) What are Household Hazardous Wastes (list them)?

b) What are you supposed to do with Household Hazardous Wastes they won't take?


3. Summarize the application containing "what you did" and "what you found out" concerning this activity.



Additional References

            Rocks and Minerals 

  Michigan Rock's Web Page

     Were there ever any volcanoes in Michigan? (Scroll to end of page)

    glacial features in the Midwest (amazing photos)

            Mining The Mineral Industry of Michigan NIOSH Mining Safety and Health Research Topics   Mining History Links Mining Facts Michigan Economic Census - Mining

 Sand Dune Mining in Michigan

            Earthquakes National Earthquake Information Center Earthquake information center (last 30 days of Earthquake activity) Michigan earthquake history Last Earthquake in Michigan

            Natural Hazards USGS Plate Tectonics and Natural Hazards (has slide shows on different natural hazards)  
 Geology News of Michigan (Current Events)  Has some stories about Natural Hazards       

            Michigan Landfills,1607,7-135-3312_4123-9894--,00.html




Last Updated: 18 April 2015